What is the Dog Genetic Identification ?
The genetic identification consists in characterizing a dog in a unique way thanks to its DNA. We detect 22 DNA fragments that are highly variables from one dog to another. These DNA fragments are called microsatellites. These microsatellites contain 2-7 base pair DNA sequences repeated a number of times. This number of repetitions provides a single fragment size.
These microsatellites are inherited from parents to puppies according to the Mendelian laws. Because of this, for a given microsatelite, each puppy will have a version inherited from the father and a version inherited from the mother.
What is the purpose of the genetic identification?
The genetic identification is unique for each dog. Thus it allows :
- to prove the paternity of a puppy towards its parents. Indeed, by comparing the 22 microsatellites of a puppy and its parents we can thus prove that the puppy is or is not the puppy of these parents. If you need to prove paternity of a puppy towards one parent, you must order this test, and towards two parents, this test.
- to determine the results of genetic diseases and coat color in some cases. The genetic diseases like DM, MDR1 etc. and dog coat color are inherited from parents to children in a Mendelian way. Therefore, in this context, it is sometimes possible to determine the results of these tests in puppies.
For example if both parents of your puppy are clear homozygote on the DM test, the puppy will necessarily be the same. As a result you only need to carry out a genetic identification of the puppy and a parentage towards both parents to prove it. This approach is economically attractive as soon as two tests are needed : genetic diseases or coat colors.
- to prove the identity of a dog. We can perform a genetic identification on a lost or stolen dog and compare it to that provided by the owner to determine with certainty if this dog belongs to him.
- to have a permanent and unfalsifiable identification. A microchip that your dog is wearing can fails and becomes unable to be detected. Similarly, a microchip can be removed. In contrast, the genetic identification of the dog is verifiable throughout his life.
- the artificial insemination of dogs is in development. In this context, if you inseminate your dog, genetic identification is required.
Quality of the Genetic Identification test
GENIMAL performs part of this test with a partner laboratory.
We choose the best partner laboratory. It is recognized by :
- ISAG (International Society and the International Foundation for Animal Genetics)
- FCI (Fédération Cynologique Internationale)
It participates to all comparative quality tests performed every 2 years by ISAG.
It was scored 100% with the best rank (rank 5, out of 5).
This laboratory used the 22 ISAG makers to genotype dog and provides results of minimum 17 markers if some cannot be analyzed.
Method of the test
To performed the dog genetic identification, we use the following 22 markers :
AHTk211, CXX279, REN169O18, INU055, REN54P11, INRA21, AHT137, REN169D01, AHTh260, AHTk253, INU005, INU030, Amelogenin, FH2848, AHT121, FH2054, REN162C04 AHTh171, REN247M23, AHTH130, REN105L03, REN64E19.
These markers are amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Then the length of PCR fragments are determined by Capillary electrophoresis.
What kind of samples we need?
The most commonly used kind of sample is a buccal swab because it is easy and painless for the dog. However we also accept blood in dry tube and blood in EDTA. However, the dogs must be at least 8 weeks old to make an buccal swab. The dogs under 8 weeks old can be analysed by sending a blood sample.
Available breeds for the test : Genetic Identification - Dog
The following breeds are recognized :
- Airedale Terrier
- Akita Inu
- Altdeutscher schaferhund
- American Staffordshire Terrier
- Anglo Français De Petite Vénerie
- Autre Race
- Barzoï (Lévrier Russe)
- Basset Artésien Normand
- Basset Bleu De Gascogne
- Basset De Westphalie
- Basset Des Alpes
- Basset Fauve De Bretagne
- Basset Hound
- Beagle Harrier
- Bedlington Terrier
- Berger Allemand
- Berger Américain
- Berger Américain Miniature
- Berger Australien
- Berger Australien Kelpie
- Berger Belge
- Berger Belge Groenendael
- Berger Belge Laekenois
- Berger Belge Malinois
- Berger Belge Tervueren
- Berger Blanc Suisse (Berger Blanc)
- Berger De Bergame
- 362 other breeds are available. Display all these breeds.
Certificate example for the test : Genetic Identification - Dog
Click on the example certificate below to open it.