DNA 파는

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Sku: DNA 섹스 조류 범주:

DNA 파는

몇 마디로 제니말에서 DNA 섹스

DNA 섹스는 현재 조류의 성별을 결정하는 가장 좋은 방법입니다. 따라서, Genimal 생명 공학은 정확성과 짧은 지연으로 자신의 조류의 성별을 결정하는 조류 사육에 기회를 제공합니다.

  • Reliability : Near 100%. 1 일 안에 결과를 얻을 수있는 가능성 익스프레스 옵션
  • Test turnaround : 1 – 3일
  • Samples : 깃털 또는 종이에 마른 혈액 또는 달걀 껍질
  • Species : We can do DNA sexing on all bird species. However we cannot sexed ratites (Ostrich, Rhea, Emu) and some glossy starling.
  • Conditions : Order a pack of DNA sexing now and then send your samples at different times within the limit of 2 years. For example, you can send 2 samples tomorrow, 3 other in two months etc.

왜 조류에서 DNA 섹스를합니까

조류의 섹스는 그들을 재현하는 확실한 커플과 형성 할 수 있기 때문에 번식의 주요 문제입니다. 같은 조류에 같은 섹스의 두 개인을 배치 또한 침략과 다른 위에 한 새의 지배의 위험을 증가. DNA 섹스에 확실 한 덕분에 몇 가지 는 따라서 병아리를 얻기에 시간 절약.
연구 관점에서, 조류의 DNA 섹스는 종종 인구 연구에서 요청됩니다. 실제로, 그것은 가능한 조류 인구의 성 비율을 연구 할 수 있습니다 (Conover & 헌트 1988; 파크스 1989; 올 슨 & Arsenault 2000), 성적 선택의 가설을 연구 (Møller 1993; 사발리 1995; 레고신 (주) & 프루에트 존스 2001), 짝짓기 시스템 연구(예: 포이나니) & Pagel 1997; 소 렌 슨 & 페인) 또는 생태 틈새 차별화를 연구하기 위해 (예 : 리치먼 & 가격 1992; 예를 들어, 시세로 & 존슨 1998).

조류에서 수컷과 암컷의 차이

조류에서 많은 종은 남성과 여성 사이의 눈에 띄는 차이를 표시하지 않습니다. 이것은 성적 이형성의 부재에게 불립니다. 따라서, 종의 60 % 이상은 성적 이형성을 표시하지 않습니다 통과에서 (PRICE & 자작 나무 1996). 비 통과자에서, 종의 80 % 이상은 성적 이형성이 없습니다. 일부 종에서는 남성과 여성 사이의 시각적 인 차이는 부화 후 몇 주 만 나타납니다. 이 경우 DNA 섹스의 사용은 필수입니다.
성적 이형성을 가진 조류에서, 남성과 여성의 차이는 여러 가지 유형이지만 종종 신뢰할 수 없습니다 :

  • 깃털 색상의 차이. 남성과 여성 사이의 깃털의 차이는 매우 중요 할 수 있습니다 에클레투스 예를 들어. 이러한 차이는 리비우스 두비우스 종종 DNA 섹스의 사용을 정당화. 일부 종의 색상 차이는 부화 후 몇 달 늦게 나타나므로 DNA 섹스의 사용은 필수적입니다.
  • 크기 차이. 일반적으로 말하자면, 남성은 일반적으로 여성보다 크고 무겁습니다. 가장 중요한 예는 혼빌에서 찾을 수 있습니다(예: 바이캐니스트 브레비스) with males weighing on average 1/3 more weight than females. On the other hand, in more than 99% of species the size difference is too small and more due to food and breeding conditions. In this case the use of DNA sexing is compulsory.
  • Difference in standing. In some species a different standing is observed in the male and the female. The males stand upright and proudly on the perch. This difference remains subtle, unreliable and variable depending on the species. DNA sexing is therefore generally practiced.
  • 노래. 어떤 종에서는, 단지 남성 노래, 따라서 여성에서 남성을 구별. 다른 종에서는 남녀 모두 노래를 부하거나 노래를 하거나 매우 신중하게 노래하지 않습니다. 이 섹스 방법은 신뢰할 수없는 남아 있으며 새가 성인이 될 때까지 그리고 번식 시즌 동안 그들을 섹스 할 수 있을 때까지 기다릴 필요가있다.

섹스의 다른 방법은 무엇입니까?

조류를 섹스에 대한 다른 수의 및 실험실 방법이 있습니다 :

  • Endoscopy is an ancient method that is rarely used today. This method is not recommended because it is invasive for the bird. Indeed it requires anesthesia of the bird and surgery on the coelomic cavity. This method is also considered unreliable in birds that have not reached sexual maturity (adult). Indeed, according to his experience, the veterinarian may have difficulties in differentiating the male and female genitalia.
  • The hormonal dosage. Some publications demonstrate the possibility of sexing birds by measuring certain sex hormones such as DHEA and estradiol. This method requires the development of the average hormone concentration in each species. The concentration of hormone in the same bird also varies depending on its age and stage during its reproductive cycle. All these uncertainties make this method of sexing nonexistent.
  • The karyotype. This method involves isolating and observing the chromosomes of birds. At the level of the sex chromosomes, the female has a Z chromosome and a W chromosome. The male, on the other hand, has two Z chromosomes and no W chromosome. This laboratory technique is long, tedious and expensive and therefore no longer practiced Nowadays.
  • DNA-based method. Numerous methods based on the study of DNA have been developed historically. The most important were the analyzes based on southern blot, RFLP, the use of DNA minisatellite or even real-time PCR. These methods are reliable but often more complicated and more expensive than traditional DNA sexing and therefore they are rarely used.

Newer methods than DNA sexing have been developed in recent years, such as HRM PCR or isothermal amplifications. The very precise HRM PCR requires complex and costly development for each species of bird and is therefore rarely used. Isothermal amplifications require very little equipment and allow sexing in the field in the absence of a laboratory. This method remains expensive, however, and many adjustments are necessary for each species in order to make the test reliable.

The method of DNA sexing

As in humans and most animals, the sex of birds is determined by two chromosomes calledsex chromosomes. In birds, males have two identical sex chromosomes named ZZ. However, in females, these two chromosomes are different and named ZW. Indeed, the Z chromosome is therefore present in both sexes while the W chromosome is only present in females. The method of DNA sexing realized at the laboratory Genimal Biotechnologies consists of detecting a particular gene that, although found on both chromosomes, is smaller in size on the W chromosome than on the Z. The DNA present in the sex chromosomes is isolated from the sample cells (feather cells, blood cells, etc.). A piece of the DNA used for DNA sexing is multiplied millions of times to make it detectable. The DNA is now detectable with a specific machine because it is present in billions of copy. In females (ZW), two bands of DNA are observed. The first band corresponds to the version of the large gene on the Z chromosome and the second band corresponds to the version of the small gene on the W chromosome. In males (ZZ), only one band is observed because both chromosomes are on the same size (Z).
DNA extraction

DNA extraction

The DNA present in the sex chromosomes is isolated from the sample cells (feather cells, blood cells, etc.).

DNA multiplication

DNA multiplication

A piece of the DNA used for DNA sexing is multiplied millions of times to make it detectable.

detection of DNA

Detection of the gene

The DNA is now detectable with a specific machine because it is present in billions of copy. In females (ZW), two bands of DNA are observed. The first band corresponds to the version of the large gene on the Z chromosome and the second band corresponds to the version of the small gene on the W chromosome. In males (ZZ), only one band is observed because both chromosomes are on the same size (Z).

What genes are used?

DNA sexing requires studying a tiny portion of the bird’s DNA. This portion of gene is used because it presents differences between the male and the female. In particular, this is the difference in the length of the DNA fragment used, making detection of the sexes easy. The most commonly used gene is CHD1 (Ellegren 1996; Griffiths et al. 1998; Fridolfsson & Ellegren1999). Certain other genes have demonstrated their potential for DNA sexing, notably the gene EE0.6 (Itoh et al. 2001), ATP5A1 (Dvorák et al. 1992) or even Wpkci (Hori et al. 2000; O’Neill et al. 2000).

Can we sex all bird species?

Yes, all species can be sexed by DNA. However, sexing Paleognathae or ratites is difficult (de Kloet 2001). The ratites are the ostriches, rhea, cassowary, kiwi. Sexing of these species is therefore not offered by laboratories. The genes studied for DNA sexing and in particular the CHD1 gene vary according to the species. For this reason, an update for each species is sometimes requested by the laboratories. Nowadays, recent analysis tools allow to get rid of the need to have a male and female witness for each species. Genimal Biotechnologies has state-of-the-art equipment and more than 10 years of know-how. Therefore, we very rarely need a witness to ensure 100% reliability for DNA sexing.

How reliable is DNA sexing?

The reliability of DNA sexing depends on the laboratories. Genimal has been an expert for over 10 years in DNA sexing and in performing more than 90,000 DNA sexings. For DNA sexing, we have an automated platform to standardize the processes and avoid sample inversion or contamination. The reliability of Genimal is recognized across Europe and we are the first laboratory to guarantee 100% reliability.

What are the deadlines for DNA sexing?

The Genimal laboratory performs DNA sexing analyzes every day and therefore delays are generally 24 hours. This period may be slightly extended if the sample has a problem with the quantity or quality of DNA. The maximum delay is 3 days. Genimal’s analytical capacity for DNA sexing is 1,000 samples per day.

From which types of sample can DNA sexing be carried out?

In the vast majority of cases, DNA sexing is carried out from the bulb of the feather also called calamus (Malagó-Jr et al., 2002). We can also sex birds with blood or the hatched 달걀 껍질. Genimal was the first laboratory to offer sexing using eggshell in 2011. We are the leader in DNA sexing using eggshell.

테스트에 대한 인증서 예제 : DNA 파는

아래 예제 인증서를 클릭하여 엽니다.

인증서

참조

DNA sexing article in Wikipedia. Read the article A DNA test to sex most birds. Griffiths R, Double MC, Orr K, Dawson RJ. Mol Ecol. 1998 Aug;7(8):1071-5. Read the article A simple and universal method for molecular sexing of non-ratite birds. Fridolfsson, AK, Ellegren, H. J Avian Biol 1999;30:116–121. Read the article Sex identification in birds using two CHD genes. Griffiths, R. Proc Biol Sci 1996;263:1251–1256. Read the article
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DNA 파는
DNA 파는
12,5027,10 옵션 선택