PKD - Feline Polycystic Kidney Disease
Predisposition according to the races
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic inherited disorder affecting cats and many mammals.
PKD has been observed in many cat breeds:
high risk breed: Persian (26%), Ragdoll, Burmese, British Shorthair (12%), European, British Longhair, Burmilla, Asian, Cornish Rex, Devon Rex, Exotic Shorthair (37%), German rex,
Havana brown, Highland fold, Highland straight, Scottish fold, Rex Californian, Selkirk rex, Snowshoe, Tiffany
medium risk breed: Maine coon (2%), Siamese, Norvegian, Turkish Angora, Bombay, Oriental, Siberian, Tonkinese, Turkish Van
low risk breed: all other breeds
Effect on the kidneys
PKD results in the formation of renal cysts filled with fluid. These cysts disrupt the functioning of the kidneys (renal failure) and can lead to the death of the affected cat.
The evolution and severity of PKD depends on the size and number of renal cysts.
In a kitten genetically affected by PKD, the cysts are microscopic and present at birth. Over time, the cysts gradually enlarge and can reach several centimeters in diameter.
In the majority of cases, cysts develop slowly, and symptoms appear at the age of seven or eight years. In some cases, the evolution is much faster.
On the left a normal kidney, on the right a kidney with PKD (presence of many cysts)
Realization of the genetic test
The DNA test for detection of PKD can be performed from 6 to 8 weeks. Like all genetic tests, this test is very reliable.
The test is usually performed from a buccal swab, fast and easy to perform.Here is the list of the different types of samples that are accepted for this test :
- Buccal swab
- Blood in EDTA tube
- Blood in dry tube
PKD therefore presents a major risk:
- When it is for a company cat, it is important to test the kitten to see if it will develop by PKD later.
- When the cat is intended for reproduction, it is essential to perform this test to be sure that the latter will not transmit the PKD to their offspring.
The test does not make it possible to determine the severity of the PKD.
It is important to early detect PKD for an effective treatment. These treatments help to limit and delay the onset of symptoms but do not allow the cats to recover.
Available breeds for the test : PKD – Feline Polycystic Kidney Disease
The following breeds are recognized :
- American Curl
- American Shorthair
- American Wirehair
- Angora Turc
- Autre Race
- Bleu Russe
- Bobtail Americain
- Bobtail Des Kouriles
- Bobtail Japonais
- British Longhair
- British Shorthair
- Burmese Americain
- Burmese Anglais
- Californian Rex
- Californian Spangled
- Cornish Rex
- Devon Rex
- Exotic Shorthair
- German Rex
- Havana Brown
- Highland Fold
- Highland Straight
- 35 other breeds are available. Display all these breeds.
Understanding results of the test : PKD – Feline Polycystic Kidney Disease
Gene Mutation : PKD1 c.10063C>A
Heredity : autosomal dominant (more information)
Penetrance : incomplete (more information)
|Test result||PKD – Feline Polycystic Kidney Disease status (PKD1 c.10063C>A)||Health status|
|N/N||No copy of the PKD mutation||Animal is normal (clear)|
|PKD/N||1 copy of the PKD mutation||Animal is, will or could be affected|
|PKD/PKD||2 copies of the PKD mutation||Animal is, will or could be affected|
Cross table of the test : PKD – Feline Polycystic Kidney Disease
|Mother N/N||Mother PKD/N||Mother PKD/PKD|
|Father N/N||100% N/N||50% N/N|
|Father PKD/N||50% N/N|
|Father PKD/PKD||100% PKD/N||50% PKD/N|
Certificate example for the test : PKD – Feline Polycystic Kidney Disease
Click on the example certificate below to open it.
Leslie A. Lyons, David S. Biller, Carolyn A. Erdman, Monika J. Lipinsky, Amy E. Young, Bruce A. Roe, Baifang Qin, Robert A. Grahn: Feline Polycystic Kidney Disease Mutation Identified in PKD1, J Am Soc Nephrol 15: 2548-2555, 2004.