Njät'i ar däx'yo ar 'yo

Pigmentos eumelanina ne faeomelanina

Ár njät'i básico ya 'yo xi determinado ya ho̲ntho yoho pigmentos hontho Eumelanina Ne faeomelanin. Ar eumelanina ar responsable ya pigmentos mpothe, marrón, chocolate, gris ne topo. Ar faeomelanina ar responsable ar pigmento ar bronceado, nga̲tho ya nzu̲nt'i thuhu ar rojo, ar crema ne ar pigmento dorado. Nzäm'bu̲ xi Eumelanin ne Phaeomelanin inducen 'nar njät'i capa nt'axu̲nwani.

Ar producción ne yá 'bede producida ar yoho nuya pigmentos, ne nä'ä tanto ár njät'i ar capa ar 'yo, gi determinados ya numerosos genes (mi 'be̲ni 14 genes). Wat'i, ár njät'i básico ar capa ar 'yo xi determinado ir nge ya interacciones 3 genes, nä'ä da llaman: ne locus, ë locus ne da locus. Ya interacciones ja nuya 3 genes ar presentan jar Xtí tabla.

Ma 'ra ya genes 'ñeni 'nar he̲'mi clave ga modificando ar njät'i básico ar capa ar 'yo. Nuya genes xi oscurecer ar däx'yo ar 'yo wa aclarar ar däx'yo ar 'yo wa 'nehe xi resultar jar patrones njät'i jar däx'yo ar 'yo.

Ne, ë, 'nar locus

Ar locus A pa Agouti ts'oni tanto ja ya pigmentos eumelanina nu'u̲ ja ya ja ar faeomelanina. Locus A hingi ar expresa nu'bu̲ locus ë pe̲ts'i ar alelo mpothe dominante (K/K, K/k, K/kBr). 'Rato Alelos ya reconocidos:
  • ár Ai ne pa ar fawn wa ya sable. Ne ir bo̲ni nk'axt'i.
  • ár AW nä'ä ge ar alelo ar klase salvaje. 'Nehe ar hu'ä sable lobo. Nu'bu̲ ma xtä mi 6 bandas alternando bronceado ne mpothe.
  • ár AT nä'ä ge ár njät'i mpothe ne bronceado ar capa
  • a ge ar xí mpothe recesivo nu'bya ni 'na jar producción faeomelanina
  • ar 'NarYt Ar alelo ar hu'ä ya cervatillo recombinante ne bí xi observado ja ya ñämfo̲ tibetanos ne 'nar mastín tibetano.
Ar xi probar goho alelos jar Genimal Biotechnologies: ar Ai ne, ár aW, ár aT, ne ár a ko ar Prueba ar ADN agutí. The hierarchical order of the agouti alleles are Ai ne > 'NarW > 'NarT > a. More details on the E locus can be found in the section below specific to this locus. The K locus has 3 alleles :
  • K which is the dominant black. The A locus has no effect on dominant black. However there is an effect of B, D and M loci.
  • kBr which is responsible for the brindle coat color. Brindle color is due to the presence of eumelanin stripes to all tan areas. The intensity of the brindle is influenced by the A locus.
  • ki ne is the wild types and all other loci can be expressed with this allele.
The K and ki ne can be tested here, whereas the kBr allele can be tested here. The kBr test includes also the detection of the K and ki ne alleles.

E locus

e/e

Recessive red

No effect of K and A locus

E/e, E/E or Em Eg Eh alleles

K locus

k/k

A locus

See the A chart below

K/K, K/k, K/kbr

Dominant black

No effect of A locus. Effect of M, B, D locus

kbr/kbr, kbr/k

Brindle

Extend of brindle depends on A locus

Locus A

Ay/aw, Ay/at, Ay/a

Fawn or sable

aw/aw, aw/at, aw/a

Wolf grey (agouti)

at/at, at/a

Black and tan or tricolor

a/a

Recessive black

E locus and mask on the dog’s head

The E locus determine the mask of the dog and whether eumelanin can be produce and thus present in the dog’s coat. Five alleles are recognized:
  • Em which is the melanistic mask. The mask is not present in dominant black dog and in recessive black dog. The mask is present in sable or fawn, black and tan, and wolf gray (agouti) coat color. Depending of the breed, the mask can cover the chest and legs.
  • EG which result in grizzle or domino coat color. This coat color is found in Saluki, Afghan Hound Ne Barzoi.
  • E which is the normal extension and allow the full expression of A and K loci.
  • eh which the cocker sable and is found in cocker spaniel only.
  • e which is the recessive or clear fawn.
The hierarchical dominance of these loci is a follow Em > EG > E > eh > e. The alleles E, Em and e can be tested here.

E locus

e/e

Recessive red

No effect of K and A locus

E/E, E/e

No effect of E

Effect of K and A locus

Em/Em, Em/E, Em/e

Melanistic mask

Can be hidden by others colors

Eg/e, Eh/E, Eh/e

Sable (Cocker)

Cocker Spaniel only

Eg/Eg, Eg/E, Eg/e

Grizzle/Domino

Need Tan on locus A

The genes that change the basic color of the dog's coat

There are 6 other genes that alter the basic color of the dog’s coat.

B locus

The B locus affects mainly eumelanin only and is reponsible of brown or liver coat color. The phaeomelanin pigment is slightly reduced from red to orange tan. Different alleles are recognized and generally 2 or 3 alleles are presents per breed. Only one of the alleles is present in the English Setter (bs), in the Doberman Pinscher (bd) and in the Italian Greyhound (bc). A DNA test exists for the B locus and can be ordered here.

Basic coat color

Locus E, K, A

B/B, B/b

Non Brown

b/b

Brown

D locus

The locus D is responsible of the dilution of both pigments eumelanin and phaeomelanin. The black coat color is diluted in blue and the brown coat color becomes isabella. A DNA test exists for this locus and can be ordered here. The genotype d/d is sometimes responsible of hair loss (BHFD) and skin inflammation (CDA) in some breeds.

Basic coat color

Locus E, K, A

D/D, D/d

Non Dilute

d/d

Dilute

S locus

The locus S is the result of spotting. Four alleles are recognized :
  • S which is a non spotting dog. However some small white area can appear in the coat often in the tail or the toes.
  • si is called the Irish spotting.
  • sp is called Piebald. The amount of spotting varies greatly according to the breed and to each dog.
  • sW is called the extreme piebald spotting. This coat is nearly all white.
To date, all the allele of the S locus can not been tested by a DNA test.

Basic coat color

Locus E, K, A

S/S

No white spotting

S/sp, sp/sp

White spotting

M and H locus

The M locus is responsible of the Merle coat color (similar to silver color). The Merle locus has a particular dominance:
  • M/m genotype is responsible of 50% of the black which is transformed into silver.
  • M/M genotype is called double merle and black is replace by around 25% of black, around 50% of silver and around 25% of white.
The DNA test of Merle can be ordered here. The H locus is named Harlequin and is specific to Great danes. No DNA test exist for this locus. The locus H is only expressed when the dog is M/m in the M locus.

Basic coat color

Locus E, K, A

M locus

H locus

M/m H/h

Merle Harlequin

M/m h/h

Merle, Non Harlequin

m/m H/h

Non merle non harlequin

m/m h/h

Non merle non harlequin

Other theoretical genes that affect dog's coat color

There are also 6 other genes that exist theorically. The breeding data proves the existence of this gene even if today that mutations have not been identified.

I locus (Intensity)

Locus I influence the intensity of the dog coat color by affecting the phaeomelanin production. Two alleles exists (I and i). This gene is now identify and you can test your dog for the I locus here.

C locus (colored)

The C locus is probably responsible of the degree to which an animal expresses phaeomelanin. Five alleles are theorised :
  • C which is the full color
  • cch for Chinchilla
  • ce which is an extreme dilution
  • cb, cp which are Blue-eyed albino and Platinum
  • c'Nar which is albino. However true albino in dog has not been proved.
Today no colortest C exist in the dog.

F locus (Flecking)

Locus Flecking is reponsible of isolated and small area of white in the coat color. However the gene involved has not been identified.

G locus (progressive greying)

G locus is responsible of a progressive greying of the coat color with the age. The grey allele is dominant. No DNA test exists.

T locus (Ticking)

The T locus is responsible of small pigment region. No DNA test currently exists.

U locus (Urajiro)

The U locus reduced the phaeomelanin production on the cheeks and underside. The gene involved has not been currently discovered.
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